In the military, adult education is described as a “process that mandates individual growth, maturity, and learning in order to achieve the collective goals of the organization” (Zacharakis and Van Der Werff, 2012, p. 90). In such way, this is comparable when developing leadership skills where the leader hopes to achieve a goal collectively with its members. Adult education in the military is currently incorporating leadership skills as one of their key learning objectives. Higher ranking staff members found that there is a positive relationship between leadership skills and critical thinking skills. The characteristics of critical thinking skills and leadership skills were very similar and that they both possess the attributes of being “open-minded, patient, and confident…flexible and creative…and realistic in the way they worked and communicated together to troubleshoot the problem while keeping their goal in sight” (Zacharakis and Van Der Werff, 2012, p. 96). In the military, “the group’s leader, is to first set forth and explain the learning objectives or goals, then facilitate the learning through dialogue and critical questioning with the understanding that there may be multiple pathways toward the set goal or establish outcome” (Zacharakis and Van Der Werff, 2012, p. 91). Within the military workforce, members hope that through dialogue and critical questioning, adult learners are able to learn better from their peers and teachers. Hence, military education is increasing and teachers are eager to incorporate critical thinking skills into their leadership development and learning. In this way, they are able to hone their communication skills when members are communicating instructions, ideas and emotions with one another. Overall, the main goal of the military workforce is to strengthen the overall capacity of their organization through leadership development and conduct more research in the future.
Zacharakis, J., & Van Der Werff, J. A. (2012). The future of adult education in the military. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, 2012(136), 89-98. doi:10.1002/ace.20038
Citation: (Zacharakis and Van Der Werff, 2012)
What is leadership in distance education? Leadership in distance education “is defined as a set of attitudes and behaviors that create conditions for innovative change, that enable individuals and organizations to share a vision and move in its direction, and that contribute to the management and operationalization of ideas.” (Beaudoin, M., 2003). The opportunity to allow students to study from anywhere is convenient and flexible and this study focuses on how students and professors can develop an asset that involves reflecting on their experiences and how they can become leaders in the future. Likewise, there was also a demand attention towards management within distance education leadership because it was “concluded that the field lacked a theoretical framework to guide [individuals] understanding of distance education practices…[and] management still appeared to be the most neglected” (Beaudoin, M., 2003). In order to have effective leadership skills, one must learn how to manage. On the contrary, research studies are searching for creative ways to make the distance education comparable to classroom-based instruction and offer more programs to students. There are ways to attract and develop new leaders into distance education and this is by “encourage[ing] mentor[ship] by senior administrators, attend[ing] professional meetings, seeking out relevant graduate courses, and keeping current with literature in the field” (Beaudoin, M., 2003). Likewise, advanced technologies play a significant role to deliver the various channels of media and the incorporation of media within learning can increase more potential students to partake distance education and researchers are looking to find the most effective delivery system “in aiding teachers to teach, and learners to learn” (Beaudoin, M., 2003).
Beaudoin, M. (2003). Distance Education for the New Century. Retreived from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer62/beaudoin62.html.
Citation: (Beaudoin, 2003)
Research studies have found that leadership in nursing results in a positive impact on employee satisfaction and patient care. Nurses should develop and hone their leadership skills and put this into practice because it is vital to the profession and demands urgent attention. It is known that leadership education can be provided by universities, healthcare organizations, or hospitals. For example, institutions and healthcare organizations are seeking to provide leadership programs, workshops and professional education seminars for nurses. In nursing, the majority of the time the profession delivers management duties and this can be taught through education or training from the employer. There were some interesting findings that “effective leaders were found to have personality traits with innate components such as ‘openness, extroversion and motivation’ (Curtis et al., 2011, p. 345). As well, researchers found that “age was positively correlated with leaderships skills, as older and more experienced nurses were more effective leaders and previous leadership experience had a positive effect on leadership” (Curtis et al., 2011, p. 345). With some leadership experience, nurses are able to transfer their skills into their employment experience and this can play a positive role when they are faced with various scenarios with their patients. In formal education, leadership can be taught by the professors and the experience that the students gain can make a valuable contribution to developing their leadership skills.
What should be taught in leadership programs?
The need of leadership programs within nursing is needed because research studies found that “nurse managers, although clinically competent, lacked confidence in areas such as human resources, managing budgets, deputizing for senior colleagues and information technology” (Curtis et al., 2011, p. 346). Programs should concentrate on generic learning and not address issues/problems associated with clinical environments but should teach different techniques. Researchers found that nurses should learn the basic techniques and apply where it is applicable for certain scenarios. For example, it was known that “nurses must be provided with opportunities to reflect and apply new knowledge to practice, as this is essential for reinforcing theoretical learning” (Curtis et al., 2011, p. 346.) Hence, nurses can also learn from their challenges they faced within health care.
Curtis, C. A., Sheerin, F. K., De Vries, J. (2011). Developing leadership in nursing: the impact of education and training. British Journal of Nursing, 20, 344-352.
Citation: (Curtis et al., 2011)